Zur sozialen Inklusion der Jugend Europas

Die Wirtschaftskrise hat die Beschäftigungsaussichten der jungen Generation stark beeinträchtigt; die Beschäftigungsrate junger Menschen hat nun den niedrigsten Stand erreicht, den Eurostat jemals verzeichnet hat. 

Neets. Um das Ausmaß der Nichterwerbstätigkeit junger Menschen besser abschätzen zu können, wurde der Begriff der NEETs entwickelt (Menschen, die weder eine Arbeit haben noch eine schulische oder berufliche Ausbildung absolvieren). Dieser Bericht beleuchtet die Situation junger Menschen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt in Europa, mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf der Gruppe der NEETs. Er untersucht die Faktoren, anhand derer die Zugehörigkeit zur NEET-Gruppe bestimmt wird, und misst die wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Kosten von NEETs. Außerdem bewertet er, wie in den Mitgliedstaaten versucht wurde, junge Menschen durch die Politik und andere Maßnahmen dabei zu unterstützen, auf dem Arbeitsmarkt Fuß zu fassen.

Inklusion. Während der Bericht von Eurofond die Zahlen der NEETs in Europa auf einem Rekordhoch sieht, beschäftigt sich dieser Policy Review der Europäischen Kommission mit der Frage, wie Jugendlichen, die sich am Rande der Gesellschaft befinden, der Zugang zu Bildung und Arbeitsmarkt ermöglicht werden kann.

Betrachtet werden die Lebensumstände und die Wünsche Jugendlicher, die sich mit schwerwiegenden und mehrfachen Formen sozialer Exklusion konfrontiert sehen (wie zum Bsp. Jugendliche mit Migrationshintergrund, Sinti und Roma, Arbeitslose, Obdachlose). Analysiert werden sowohl Ursachen als auch Abläufe der Exklusion im Kontext der europäischen Jugendpolitik. Der Bericht liefert (politische) Lösungsvorschläge, um Exklusion zu überwinden.

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CONTENTS Social inclusion of youth on the margins of society - Policy review of research results
Foreword 8
Executive summary 11
Setting the scene 18
The research projects 19
1. The European youth policy context 22
1.1. The European Union 22
1.2. The Europe 2020 strategy 25
1.3. The Council of Europe 26
1.4. The national policy contexts in Europe:
Notes from the projects 27
Chapter 1: Key messages 29
2. Blinding evidence: Missing links and gaps in knowledge building
and youth policies 31
2.1. THE POLICY ISSUE: Lack of statistics and political recognition 31
• The policy challenge: Recognition in policies and reflexive policymaking 32
• Policy implications: Social monitoring and comparative statistics 33
• Recommendations 33
2.2. THE POLICY ISSUE: Missing links and contradictory policy approaches 33
• The policy challenge: Improve the links between different policy sectors 35
• Policy implications: Multi-agency approach in supporting youth 35
• Recommendations 36
2.3. THE POLICY ISSUE: Excluding age policies 37
• The policy challenge: Political recognition of the specific needs of young
people irrespective of age thresholds and restrictions 38
• Policy implications: Limits revisited — Diversified age politics 38
• Recommendations 38
Chapter 2: Key messages 39
3. Bad starting conditions: Carrying adults’ burdens and
responsibilities 41
3.1. THE POLICY ISSUE: Low coping capacities and social capital of families
of origin 41
• The policy challenge: External support that complements
or compensates for poor family efforts 42➜ 6
• Policy implications: Early intervention and targeted services 42
• Recommendations 43
3.2. THE POLICY ISSUE: Poor cultural integration of migrant and ethnic minority
youth 43
• The policy challenge: Empowerment of the neighbourhood 44
• Policy implications: Multiple learning options in the neighbourhood 44
• Recommendations 45
Chapter 3: Key messages 46
4. Education — potential for inclusion 48
4.1. THE POLICY ISSUE: Limited access to pre-school education 48
• The policy challenge: Multiple use of involvement in pre-school education 48
• Policy implications: Wider access to pre-school 48
• Recommendations 49
4.2. THE POLICY ISSUE: Segregation in the compulsory education systems
produces an educational divide 49
• The policy challenge: Reduction of educational inequalities 50
• Policy implications: Practices against early educational divide 50
• Recommendations 51
4.3. THE POLICY ISSUE: The ‘otherness’ in youth diminishes good prospects
in adulthood 52
• The policy challenge: Intercultural sensitivity and support 52
• Policy implications: Break down stigma and cease labelling 53
• Recommendations 53
4.4. THE POLICY ISSUE: Low prospects for post-compulsory education 54
• The policy challenge: Support for educational aspirations 55
• Policy implications: Make concentration on learning possible 55
• Recommendations 56
Chapter 4: Key messages 57
5. Transitions to independent living — potential for inclusion 59
5.1. THE POLICY ISSUE: Leaving home, school or care early — Young people
are unprepared for independent living 59
• The policy challenge: Integrated support of transitions to independent life 59
• Policy implications: Personal advisers and extended institutional support 60
• Recommendations 60➜ 7
CONTENTS
5.2. THE POLICY ISSUE: Lack of resources for civic and political
participation 61
• The policy challenge: Empowerment of youth agency 61
• Policy implications: Support for young people’s capabilities and resilience 62
• Recommendations 63
Chapter 5: Key messages 64
6. The way forward: Tackling multiple disadvantages of youth
on the margins of society 66
6.1. Increase in formal support, protection and encouragement will open up
more opportunities for the social inclusion of excluded youth 66
6.2. Integration of policies and the strengthening of their inclusiveness
will improve the accessibility to education and the labour market of
excluded youth groups 67
6.3. Promotion of citizenship and participation will empower youth agency
and encourage solidarity between youth and society 68
6.4. From the Europe 2020 flagship ‘Youth on the move’ to actions 69
References 71
Background information 73
Objective WP2007: Youth and social exclusion (SSH-2007-3.2.1) 73
• Evidence-based policy conference on ‘Social inclusion of youth on the margins
of society: more opportunities, better access and higher solidarity’ 73
17 and 18 November 2011, Brussels, Madou Auditorium 73
• Overview and links of the five youth and social inclusion projects 74
• Methodological overview table for the five youth and social inclusion projects 75

Contents: NEETs - Young people not in employment, education or training: Characteristics, costs and policy responses in Europe
Executive summary  1
1 – Labour market participation of young people 3
Youth unemployment 3
Young people in work 10
Conclusion 17
2 – Young people not in employment, education or training 19
Origin and development of the term NEET 19
NEET as a concept and indicator in the EU 20
Main traits of the NEET population 27
Common patterns among European countries 38
Conclusion 40
3 – Institutional and structural determinants 42
Role of labour market institutions 42
Role of education and training institutions 48
Macro-structural influences 49
A holistic view 51
Conclusion 52
4 – Risk factors and individual consequences of being NEET 53
Characteristics and risk factors 53
Characteristics of the European NEET 54
Individual consequences of being NEET 58
Conclusion 61
5 – Economic cost of NEETs 62
Previous calculations of the cost of NEETs 62
Computing the cost of NEETs across the EU 65
Conclusion 80
12/10/12   09:146 – Societal costs of NEETs  82
Trust, political engagement and social participation  83
Data and methods  87
Results of the analysis  90
Discussion and conclusion  105
7 – Reintegrating young people into the labour market and education  108
Preventing early school-leaving  110
Reintegrating early school-leavers  116
Supporting school-to-work transitions  120
Fostering employability of young people  128
Removing barriers and offering employer incentives  134
Conclusion 139
Conclusions  141
Bibliography  145

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